Profiles of mindfulness in cancer patients and associations with psychological outcomes and coping strategies: A person-centered approach

J Clin Psychol. 2022 Mar 21. doi: 10.1002/jclp.23346. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous research confirmed the benefits of mindfulness for cancer patients’ psychological well-being, but few studies considered the value of possible distinct combinations of mindfulness skills. This study aimed to (1) identify distinct mindfulness profiles in cancer patients, (2) examine socio-demographic predictors of patients with distinct profiles, and (3) examine associations of mindfulness profiles with psychological outcomes and coping strategies.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 245 people with heterogeneous types of cancer. Latent profile analysis was applied to identify distinct profiles of mindfulness. The Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars method was used to examine how mindfulness profiles related to socio-demographic characteristics, psychological outcomes, and coping strategies.

RESULTS: Four mindfulness profiles were identified: “average mindfulness” (50%), “judgmentally observing” (20%), “high mindfulness” (15%), and “non-judgmentally aware” (15%). Patients with “high mindfulness” profile tended to have higher educational attainment, and reported better psychological outcomes (i.e., low on depression and negative affect and high on positive affect) as well as better coping strategies (i.e., high positive reappraisal and low rumination).

CONCLUSION: This study confirms the existence of distinct mindfulness profiles in cancer patients and suggest that patients high in mindfulness are the most adaptive.

PMID:35315081 | DOI:10.1002/jclp.23346

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Profiles of mindfulness in cancer patients and associations with psychological outcomes and coping strategies: A person-centered approach

J Clin Psychol. 2022 Mar 21. doi: 10.1002/jclp.23346. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous research confirmed the benefits of mindfulness for cancer patients’ psychological well-being, but few studies considered the value of possible distinct combinations of mindfulness skills. This study aimed to (1) identify distinct mindfulness profiles in cancer patients, (2) examine socio-demographic predictors of patients with distinct profiles, and (3) examine associations of mindfulness profiles with psychological outcomes and coping strategies.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 245 people with heterogeneous types of cancer. Latent profile analysis was applied to identify distinct profiles of mindfulness. The Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars method was used to examine how mindfulness profiles related to socio-demographic characteristics, psychological outcomes, and coping strategies.

RESULTS: Four mindfulness profiles were identified: “average mindfulness” (50%), “judgmentally observing” (20%), “high mindfulness” (15%), and “non-judgmentally aware” (15%). Patients with “high mindfulness” profile tended to have higher educational attainment, and reported better psychological outcomes (i.e., low on depression and negative affect and high on positive affect) as well as better coping strategies (i.e., high positive reappraisal and low rumination).

CONCLUSION: This study confirms the existence of distinct mindfulness profiles in cancer patients and suggest that patients high in mindfulness are the most adaptive.

PMID:35315081 | DOI:10.1002/jclp.23346

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White Paper: Open Digital Health – accelerating transparent and scalable health promotion and treatment

Health Psychol Rev. 2022 Mar 14:1-17. doi: 10.1080/17437199.2022.2046482. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In this White Paper, we outline recommendations from the perspective of health psychology and behavioural science, addressing three research gaps: (1) What methods in the health psychology research toolkit can be best used for developing and evaluating digital health tools? (2) What are the most feasible strategies to reuse digital health tools across populations and settings? (3) What are the main advantages and challenges of sharing (openly publishing) data, code, intervention content and design features of digital health tools? We provide actionable suggestions for researchers joining the continuously growing Open Digital Health movement, poised to revolutionise health psychology research and practice in the coming years. This White Paper is positioned in the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic, exploring how digital health tools have rapidly gained popularity in 2020-2022, when world-wide health promotion and treatment efforts rapidly shifted from face-to-face to remote delivery. This statement is written by the Directors of the not-for-profit Open Digital Health initiative (n = 6), Experts attending the European Health Psychology Society Synergy Expert Meeting (n = 17), and the initiative consultant, following a two-day meeting (19-20th August 2021).

PMID:35240931 | DOI:10.1080/17437199.2022.2046482

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White Paper: Open Digital Health – accelerating transparent and scalable health promotion and treatment

Health Psychol Rev. 2022 Mar 14:1-17. doi: 10.1080/17437199.2022.2046482. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In this White Paper, we outline recommendations from the perspective of health psychology and behavioural science, addressing three research gaps: (1) What methods in the health psychology research toolkit can be best used for developing and evaluating digital health tools? (2) What are the most feasible strategies to reuse digital health tools across populations and settings? (3) What are the main advantages and challenges of sharing (openly publishing) data, code, intervention content and design features of digital health tools? We provide actionable suggestions for researchers joining the continuously growing Open Digital Health movement, poised to revolutionise health psychology research and practice in the coming years. This White Paper is positioned in the current context of the COVID-19 pandemic, exploring how digital health tools have rapidly gained popularity in 2020-2022, when world-wide health promotion and treatment efforts rapidly shifted from face-to-face to remote delivery. This statement is written by the Directors of the not-for-profit Open Digital Health initiative (n = 6), Experts attending the European Health Psychology Society Synergy Expert Meeting (n = 17), and the initiative consultant, following a two-day meeting (19-20th August 2021).

PMID:35240931 | DOI:10.1080/17437199.2022.2046482

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Healthcare Utilization and Costs in Sepsis Survivors in Germany-Secondary Analysis of a Prospective Cohort Study

J Clin Med. 2022 Feb 21;11(4):1142. doi: 10.3390/jcm11041142.

ABSTRACT

Background: Survivors of sepsis often face long-term sequelae after intensive care treatment. Compared to the period of hospitalization, little is known about the ambulatory healthcare utilization in sepsis patients. The study evaluated healthcare utilization and associated costs of sepsis care including allied health professions after initial hospitalization. Methods: Secondary analysis was performed on data in 210 sepsis patients prospectively enrolled from nine intensive care study centers across Germany. Data was collected via structured surveys among their Primary care (Family-) physicians (PCPs) within the first month after discharge from ICU (baseline) and again at 6, 12 and 24 months after discharge, each relating to the period following the last survey. Costs were assessed by standardized cost unit rates from a health care system’s perspective. Changes in healthcare utilization and costs over time were calculated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Of the 210 patients enrolled, 146 (69.5%) patients completed the 24 months follow-up. In total, 109 patients were hospitalized within the first 6 months post-intensive care. Mean total direct costs per patient at 0-6 months were €17,531 (median: €6047), at 7-12 months €9029 (median: €3312), and at 13-24 months €18,703 (median: €12,828). The largest contributor to the total direct costs within the first 6 months was re-hospitalizations (€13,787 (median: €2965). After this first half year, we observed a significant decline in inpatient care costs for re-hospitalizations (p ≤ 0.001). PCPs were visited by more than 95% of patients over 24 months. Conclusions: Sepsis survivors have high health care utilization. Hospital readmissions are frequent and costly. Highest costs and hospitalizations were observed in more than half of patients within the first six months post-intensive care. Among all outpatient care providers, PCPs were consulted most frequently. Clinical impact: Sepsis survivors have a high healthcare utilization and related costs which persist after discharge from hospital. Within outpatient care, possible needs of sepsis survivors as physiotherapy or psychotherapy seem not to be met appropriately. Development of sepsis aftercare programs for early detection and treatment of complications should be prioritized.

PMID:35207415 | PMC:PMC8879304 | DOI:10.3390/jcm11041142

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Healthcare Utilization and Costs in Sepsis Survivors in Germany-Secondary Analysis of a Prospective Cohort Study

J Clin Med. 2022 Feb 21;11(4):1142. doi: 10.3390/jcm11041142.

ABSTRACT

Background: Survivors of sepsis often face long-term sequelae after intensive care treatment. Compared to the period of hospitalization, little is known about the ambulatory healthcare utilization in sepsis patients. The study evaluated healthcare utilization and associated costs of sepsis care including allied health professions after initial hospitalization. Methods: Secondary analysis was performed on data in 210 sepsis patients prospectively enrolled from nine intensive care study centers across Germany. Data was collected via structured surveys among their Primary care (Family-) physicians (PCPs) within the first month after discharge from ICU (baseline) and again at 6, 12 and 24 months after discharge, each relating to the period following the last survey. Costs were assessed by standardized cost unit rates from a health care system’s perspective. Changes in healthcare utilization and costs over time were calculated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Of the 210 patients enrolled, 146 (69.5%) patients completed the 24 months follow-up. In total, 109 patients were hospitalized within the first 6 months post-intensive care. Mean total direct costs per patient at 0-6 months were €17,531 (median: €6047), at 7-12 months €9029 (median: €3312), and at 13-24 months €18,703 (median: €12,828). The largest contributor to the total direct costs within the first 6 months was re-hospitalizations (€13,787 (median: €2965). After this first half year, we observed a significant decline in inpatient care costs for re-hospitalizations (p ≤ 0.001). PCPs were visited by more than 95% of patients over 24 months. Conclusions: Sepsis survivors have high health care utilization. Hospital readmissions are frequent and costly. Highest costs and hospitalizations were observed in more than half of patients within the first six months post-intensive care. Among all outpatient care providers, PCPs were consulted most frequently. Clinical impact: Sepsis survivors have a high healthcare utilization and related costs which persist after discharge from hospital. Within outpatient care, possible needs of sepsis survivors as physiotherapy or psychotherapy seem not to be met appropriately. Development of sepsis aftercare programs for early detection and treatment of complications should be prioritized.

PMID:35207415 | PMC:PMC8879304 | DOI:10.3390/jcm11041142

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Branched chain amino acids are associated with metabolic complications in liver transplant recipients

Clin Biochem. 2022 Apr;102:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2022.01.009. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) contribute substantially to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx). Elevated plasma branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are linked to metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles in several non-OLTx populations.

METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of liver transplant recipients from TransplantLines, a single-center biobank and cohort study. BCAA plasma levels were measured by means of nuclear-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. CVD and cardiometabolic factors were collected by using data from electronic patient records. Associations were determined between BCAA plasma levels and T2D, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), CVD as well as mTOR inhibition in liver transplant recipients.

RESULTS: 336 Patients were divided into sex-stratified tertiles of total BCAA. MetS (P < 0.001) and T2D (P = 0.002) were significantly more frequent in subjects in the highest BCAA tertile. In logistic regression analyses, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) per 1 standard deviation increase in BCAA was 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18-2.20, P = 0.003) for MetS and 1.60 (95%CI: 1.14-2.23, P = 0.006) for T2D. Use of Sirolimus (mTOR inhibitor) was significantly associated with higher BCAA plasma levels, independent of age, sex, time after OLTx, MetS and other immunosuppressive medication (adjusted P = 0.002).

CONCLUSION: Elevated BCAA plasma levels are associated with T2D, MetS and use of Sirolimus in liver transplant recipients. BCAA plasma levels may represent a valuable biomarker for cardiometabolic complications after OLTx.

PMID:35143831 | DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2022.01.009

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Branched chain amino acids are associated with metabolic complications in liver transplant recipients

Clin Biochem. 2022 Apr;102:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2022.01.009. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) contribute substantially to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx). Elevated plasma branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are linked to metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles in several non-OLTx populations.

METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of liver transplant recipients from TransplantLines, a single-center biobank and cohort study. BCAA plasma levels were measured by means of nuclear-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. CVD and cardiometabolic factors were collected by using data from electronic patient records. Associations were determined between BCAA plasma levels and T2D, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), CVD as well as mTOR inhibition in liver transplant recipients.

RESULTS: 336 Patients were divided into sex-stratified tertiles of total BCAA. MetS (P < 0.001) and T2D (P = 0.002) were significantly more frequent in subjects in the highest BCAA tertile. In logistic regression analyses, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) per 1 standard deviation increase in BCAA was 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18-2.20, P = 0.003) for MetS and 1.60 (95%CI: 1.14-2.23, P = 0.006) for T2D. Use of Sirolimus (mTOR inhibitor) was significantly associated with higher BCAA plasma levels, independent of age, sex, time after OLTx, MetS and other immunosuppressive medication (adjusted P = 0.002).

CONCLUSION: Elevated BCAA plasma levels are associated with T2D, MetS and use of Sirolimus in liver transplant recipients. BCAA plasma levels may represent a valuable biomarker for cardiometabolic complications after OLTx.

PMID:35143831 | DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2022.01.009

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Are cancer patients with high depressive symptom levels able to manage these symptoms without professional care? The role of coping and social support

Psychooncology. 2022 Feb 8. doi: 10.1002/pon.5896. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Around 25% of cancer patients experiences depressive symptoms. However, the majority does not receive formal psychological care because patients often prefer managing symptoms alone or with informal social support. Previous research has shown that adaptive coping and social support can indeed be effective in managing relatively mild depressive symptoms. However, higher depressive symptom levels rarely improve without psychological treatment. This longitudinal study examined how and to what extent coping and social support are related to reductions in depressive symptoms in cancer patients with moderate to severe depressive symptoms.

METHODS: Respondents were diagnosed with cancer in the past five years, experienced high depressive symptom levels (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and were not receiving psychological care at baseline. We collected data with self-report questionnaires (including PHQ-9, brief COPE and Social Support List) at two assessments, taken three months apart.

RESULTS: Although depressive symptoms decreased significantly between baseline and follow-up, the average level at follow-up was still moderate to severe. Patients using less avoidant coping, specifically less substance use, were more likely to report a reduction of depressive symptoms. We found no significant beneficial effects of approach coping and social support (coping) on the course of depressive symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: A significant group of cancer patients with high levels of depressive symptoms do not seem able to effectively manage depressive symptoms by themselves, especially those more likely to avoid dealing with their symptoms. Cancer patients can be educated about avoidant coping and its possible detrimental effects, as well as being informed about possibilities of psychosocial services.

PMID:35133052 | DOI:10.1002/pon.5896

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Are cancer patients with high depressive symptom levels able to manage these symptoms without professional care? The role of coping and social support

Psychooncology. 2022 Feb 8. doi: 10.1002/pon.5896. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Around 25% of cancer patients experiences depressive symptoms. However, the majority does not receive formal psychological care because patients often prefer managing symptoms alone or with informal social support. Previous research has shown that adaptive coping and social support can indeed be effective in managing relatively mild depressive symptoms. However, higher depressive symptom levels rarely improve without psychological treatment. This longitudinal study examined how and to what extent coping and social support are related to reductions in depressive symptoms in cancer patients with moderate to severe depressive symptoms.

METHODS: Respondents were diagnosed with cancer in the past five years, experienced high depressive symptom levels (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and were not receiving psychological care at baseline. We collected data with self-report questionnaires (including PHQ-9, brief COPE and Social Support List) at two assessments, taken three months apart.

RESULTS: Although depressive symptoms decreased significantly between baseline and follow-up, the average level at follow-up was still moderate to severe. Patients using less avoidant coping, specifically less substance use, were more likely to report a reduction of depressive symptoms. We found no significant beneficial effects of approach coping and social support (coping) on the course of depressive symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: A significant group of cancer patients with high levels of depressive symptoms do not seem able to effectively manage depressive symptoms by themselves, especially those more likely to avoid dealing with their symptoms. Cancer patients can be educated about avoidant coping and its possible detrimental effects, as well as being informed about possibilities of psychosocial services.

PMID:35133052 | DOI:10.1002/pon.5896

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