Social frailty in older adults: a scoping review.
Eur J Ageing. 2017 Sep;14(3):323-334
Authors: Bunt S, Steverink N, Olthof J, van der Schans CP, Hobbelen JSM
Social frailty is a rather unexplored concept. In this paper, the concept of social frailty among older people is explored utilizing a scoping review. In the first stage, 42 studies related to social frailty of older people were compiled from scientific databases and analyzed. In the second stage, the findings of this literature were structured using the social needs concept of Social Production Function theory. As a result, it was concluded that social frailty can be defined as a continuum of being at risk of losing, or having lost, resources that are important for fulfilling one or more basic social needs during the life span. Moreover, the results of this scoping review indicate that not only the (threat of) absence of social resources to fulfill basic social needs should be a component of the concept of social frailty, but also the (threat of) absence of social behaviors and social activities, as well as (threat of) the absence of self-management abilities. This conception of social frailty provides opportunities for future research, and guidelines for practice and policy.
PMID: 28936141 [PubMed]
Do good self-managers have less physical and social resource deficits and more well-being in later life?
Eur J Ageing. 2008 Sep;5(3):181-190
Authors: Steverink N, Lindenberg S
Proactive self-management is likely to be part of resource maintenance and well-being in later life, but empirical evidence is scarce. Therefore, we investigated (a) whether self-management ability (SMA) is associated with lower resource deficits, and (b) whether it is related directly and indirectly to life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Regression and mediational analyses (N = 439, aged 65 years and older), showed that SMA related to resource deficits, and had direct associations with the three well-being indicators. Indirect associations-via lower resource deficits-were found for LS, whereas the association between SMA and PA was mostly a direct one, being mediated only to a small extent by physical resource deficits. The association between SMA and NA was mediated only by social resource deficits. It is concluded that better SMA seems to matter to resource maintenance and well-being, but future research needs to unravel the differential findings for physical and social resource deficits and for the separate well-being indicators.
PMID: 28798571 [PubMed]
Emodiversity: Robust predictor of outcomes or statistical artifact?
J Exp Psychol Gen. 2017 Sep;146(9):1372-1377
Authors: Brown NJL, Coyne JC
This article examines the concept of emodiversity, put forward by Quoidbach et al. (2014) as a novel source of information about “the health of the human emotional ecosystem” (p. 2057). Quoidbach et al. drew an analogy between emodiversity as a desirable property of a person’s emotional make-up and biological diversity as a desirable property of an ecosystem. They claimed that emodiversity was an independent predictor of better mental and physical health outcomes in two large-scale studies. Here, we show that Quoidbach et al.’s construct of emodiversity suffers from several theoretical and practical deficiencies, which make these authors’ use of Shannon’s (1948) entropy formula to measure emodiversity highly questionable. Our reanalysis of Quoidbach et al.’s two studies shows that the apparently substantial effects that these authors reported are likely due to a failure to conduct appropriate hierarchical regression in one case and to suppression effects in the other. It appears that Quoidbach et al.’s claims about emodiversity may reduce to little more than a set of computational and statistical artifacts. (PsycINFO Database Record
PMID: 28846007 [PubMed – in process]
Am I a 6 or a 10? Mate Value Among Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer and Healthy Peers.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol. 2017 Aug 07;:
Authors: Lehmann V, Tuinman MA, Keim MC, Hagedoorn M, Gerhardt CA
PURPOSE: This study focused on self-perceived mate value of young adult survivors of childhood cancer relative to healthy peers. Qualitative studies indicate potential problems surrounding romantic relationships among survivors, but systematic studies are missing.
METHODS: One-hundred forty-nine childhood cancer survivors and 149 matched controls completed online questionnaires about their mate value, social comparison strategies (i.e., upward/downward identifying/contrasting strategies), and marital status. Survivors and controls were aged 20-40 (M = 27.8), 55% were female, and survivors had been treated for brain tumors (n = 52; 35%), leukemia (n = 42; 28%), lymphoma (n = 31; 21%), or other solid tumors (n = 24; 16%) at 5-33 years before study participation.
RESULTS: Survivors and controls did not differ on overall mate value, but on individual characteristics: Survivors thought they had a better sense of humor (d = 0.36), were more loyal (d = 0.32), had higher social status (d = 0.26), and were more ambitious (d = 0.19), while also considering themselves less sexually adventurous (d = 0.31), less healthy (d = 0.26), having less desire to have children (d = 0.21), and a less attractive face (d = 0.20). Higher mate value was related to being partnered, more upward-identifying, less upward-contrasting, and less downward-identifying strategies. Moreover, less downward-identifying was associated with higher mate value in survivors, but not controls; whereas greater downward-contrasting was associated with higher mate value among controls only (R(2) = 30.8%).
CONCLUSIONS: Survivors do not generally view themselves as less valuable (potential) romantic partners, but they evaluate different characteristics either more positively or more negatively. Social comparison strategies offer targetable points of interventions to intervene on negative self-evaluations, potentially enhancing well-being.
PMID: 28783412 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
The impact of older person’s frailty on the care-related quality of life of their informal caregiver over time: results from the TOPICS-MDS project.
Qual Life Res. 2017 May 31;:
Authors: Oldenkamp M, Hagedoorn M, Wittek R, Stolk R, Smidt N
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of changes in an older person’s frailty on the care-related quality of life of their informal caregiver.
METHODS: Five research projects in the TOPICS-MDS database with data of both older person and informal caregiver at baseline and after 12 months follow-up were selected. Frailty was measured in five health domains (functional limitations, psychological well-being, social functioning, health-related quality of life, self-rated health). Care-related quality of life was measured with the Care-Related Quality of Life instrument (CarerQoL-7D), containing two positive (fulfilment, perceived support) and five negative dimensions (relational problems, mental health problems, physical health problems, financial problems, problems combining informal care with daily activities).
RESULTS: 660 older person/caregiver couples were included. Older persons were on average 79 (SD 6.9) years of age, and 61% was female. Caregivers were on average 65 (SD 12.6) years of age, and 68% was female. Results of the multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses showed that an increase in older person’s frailty over time was related to a lower total care-related quality of life of the caregiver, and to more mental and physical health problems, and problems with combining informal care with daily activities at follow-up. A change in the older person’s psychological well-being was most important for the caregiver’s care-related quality of life, compared to the other health domains.
CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals observing decreasing psychological well-being of an older person and increasing hours of informal care provision should be aware of the considerable problems this may bring to their informal caregiver, and should tailor interventions to support informal caregivers according to their specific needs and problems.
PMID: 28567602 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
The role of pain behaviour and family caregiver responses in the link between pain catastrophising and pain intensity: A moderated mediation model.
Psychol Health. 2017 Apr;32(4):422-438
Authors: Mohammadi S, Dehghani M, Sanderman R, Hagedoorn M
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the mediating role of pain behaviours in the association between pain catastrophising and pain intensity and explored the moderating role of family caregivers’ responses to pain in the link between pain behaviours and pain intensity.
METHODS: The sample consisted of 154 chronic pain patients and their family caregivers. Patients completed questionnaires regarding pain intensity, pain catastrophising, pain behaviours and their caregivers’ responses to their pain. Family caregivers reported their responses to the patients’ pain.
RESULTS: Pain catastrophising was associated with pain intensity (r = 0.37) and pain behaviours partly mediated this association. The positive association between pain behaviours and pain intensity was significant only if patients reported that their family caregivers showed high levels of solicitous (effect = .49) and distracting responses (effect = .58), and if caregivers reported to show high levels of solicitous responses (effect = .51). No support was found for negative responses as a moderator neither based on patients’ perception of negative responses nor based on caregivers’ perception of negative responses.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings are in line with the idea that family caregivers’ solicitous and distracting responses convey to patients that their condition is serious, which may reinforce patients’ pain and pain behaviours, especially in those who catastrophise.
PMID: 28042705 [PubMed – in process]
Sustaining program effectiveness after implementation: The case of the self-management of well-being group intervention for older adults.
Patient Educ Couns. 2017 Jun;100(6):1177-1184
Authors: Goedendorp MM, Kuiper D, Reijneveld SA, Sanderman R, Steverink N
OBJECTIVE: The Self-Management of Well-being (SMW) group intervention for older women was implemented in health and social care. Our aim was to assess whether effects of the SMW intervention were comparable with the original randomized controlled trial (RCT). Furthermore, we investigated threats to effectiveness, such as participant adherence, group reached, and program fidelity.
METHODS: In the implementation study (IMP) 287 and RCT 142 women participated. We compared scores on self-management ability and well-being of the IMP and RCT. For adherence, drop-out rates and session attendance were compared. Regarding reach, we compared participants’ baseline characteristics. Professionals completed questions regarding program fidelity.
RESULTS: No significant differences were found on effect outcomes and adherence between IMP and RCT (all p≥0.135). Intervention effect sizes were equal (0.47-0.59). IMP participants were significantly less lonely and more likely to be married, but had lower well-being. Most professionals followed the protocol, with only minimal deviations.
CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of the SMW group intervention was reproduced after implementation, with similar participant adherence, minimal changes in the group reached, and high program fidelity.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The SMW group intervention can be transferred to health and social care without loss of effectiveness. Implementation at a larger scale is warranted.
PMID: 28089311 [PubMed – in process]
Delay in diagnosis of testicular cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4602
Authors: Fleer J, Sleijfer DT, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, Hoekstra HJ
4602 Background: Delay in presentation of a testis tumor may result in an advanced stage of disease at diagnosis, which may affect disease free and overall survival. The aim of this study was to determine variables related to delay in diagnosis of testicular cancer (TC).
METHODS: A questionnaire was developed to assess patient delay (time from first symptom till first consultation with general practitioner (GP)) and doctor delay (time from first consultation with GP till final diagnosis). In addition, patient and disease characteristics possibly related to patient and/or doctor delay, were collected: age, marital status, educational level, extensiveness of the disease (stage I vs disseminated disease), number of symptoms, change in testicle as a symptom, pain as a symptom, patients’ knowledge of TC, appraisal of symptoms as threatening, embarrassment, and whether the doctor referred the patient immediately for further examination.
RESULTS: 48 men (median age 25, range 16-44 years) who were consecutively referred to the Groningen University Hospital completed the questionnaire. Median patient delay was 30 (range 1-365) days. Only educational level correlated with patient delay (r=-.30, p=.03). Median doctor delay was 14 (0-240) days. After first consultation, only 20 patients (42%) were immediately referred for further examination. The remaining 28 patients were not immediately referred, which led to a significantly longer doctor delay (median = 23 days, t=-4.47, p90 days. Age was significantly related to total delay (r=-.33, p=.03). Six patients (12.5%) did not have a change in testicle as presenting symptom, but this was not related to delay. Extensiveness of disease was not related to delay.
CONCLUSIONS: Surprisingly, having disseminated disease and having a change in a testicle as presenting symptom were not related to delay, but younger and lower educated men appeared to be more likely to report delay in diagnosis. Over half of the men were not immediately referred for further examination, resulting in a significantly longer GP delay. This finding stresses the responsibility of GPs in the diagnostic process of TC. No significant financial relationships to disclose.
PMID: 28015713 [PubMed – in process]
Chronic multimorbidity impairs role functioning in middle-aged and older individuals mostly when non-partnered or living alone.
PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0170525
Authors: Müller F, Hagedoorn M, Tuinman MA
BACKGROUND: Due to the aging of the population, society includes a growing proportion of older individuals prone to chronic morbidity. This study aimed to investigate the adverse effects of single and multiple chronic morbidity on psychosocial health and whether these effects are more pronounced in individuals who are non-partnered or living alone.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data from the ‘Lifelines Cohort Study’ collected between 2006 and 2013 in the Netherlands were used. Individuals aged 50+ (n = 25,214) were categorized according to their health status (healthy, single chronic morbidity, multiple chronic morbidity), relationship status (partnered, non-partnered), and living arrangement (living with someone, living alone). Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to study the main- and the interaction-effects on mental health and role functioning as assessed with the RAND-36.
RESULTS: Irrespective of having chronic morbidity, having a partner was associated with better mental health when partners shared a home. Individuals with single and especially multiple chronic morbidity had impaired role functioning. Having a partner mitigated the adverse effects of multimorbidity on role functioning, but only in individuals who shared a home with their partner. Non-partnered individuals with multimorbidity and those not sharing a home with their partner demonstrated impaired role functioning.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that multimorbidity negatively affects role functioning, but not the mental health, of middle-aged and older individuals. Sharing a home with a partner can mitigate these adverse effects, while other combinations of relationship status and living arrangement do not. Offering intervention to those individuals most vulnerable to impaired functioning may relieve some of the increasing pressure on the health care system. An individual’s relationship status along with one’s living arrangement could foster the identification of a target group for such interventions attempting to sustain physical functioning or to adapt daily goals.
PMID: 28151967 [PubMed – in process]
Changes of Perceived Control after Kidney Transplantation: a prospective Study.
J Adv Nurs. 2017 Jan 25;:
Authors: Schulz T, Niesing J, Homan Van Der Heide JJ, Westerhuis R, Ploeg RJ, Ranchor AV
AIMS: To determine if kidney transplantation is associated with increases of perceived control and how changes of perceived control affect the course of psychological distress until one year after transplantation.
BACKGROUND: Low levels of perceived control are associated with reduced well-being among dialysis patients.
DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study.
METHODS: Perceived control (Mastery Scale) and psychological distress (GHQ-12) were prospectively assessed before (T0; n = 470) and three (T1; n = 197), six (T2; n = 210) and twelve (T3; n = 183) months after transplantation. Differences between T1 and T0 perceived control were used to stratify the sample into three groups (control gain, stable control and control loss). Socio-demographic and clinical variables, including complications, were examined as potential correlates and the course of psychological was distress compared across groups. Data were collected between July 2008 – July 2013.
RESULTS: Perceived control showed a small increase overall, with 35.1%, 50.0% and 14.9% reporting gain, stable level and loss respectively. Patients with secondary schooling were overrepresented in the control loss group. The course of psychological distress varied across perceived control change groups, with patients in the control gain group experiencing a significant reduction of psychological distress.
CONCLUSION: A considerable number of patients report increased levels of perceived control after transplantation that are associated with a subsequent decrease of psychological distress. Results emphasize the importance of perceived control and could inform interventions to facilitate well-being after kidney transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 28122152 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]