Category Archives: PLoS One

Chronic multimorbidity impairs role functioning in middle-aged and older individuals mostly when non-partnered or living alone.






Chronic multimorbidity impairs role functioning in middle-aged and older individuals mostly when non-partnered or living alone.

PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0170525

Authors: Müller F, Hagedoorn M, Tuinman MA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Due to the aging of the population, society includes a growing proportion of older individuals prone to chronic morbidity. This study aimed to investigate the adverse effects of single and multiple chronic morbidity on psychosocial health and whether these effects are more pronounced in individuals who are non-partnered or living alone.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data from the ‘Lifelines Cohort Study’ collected between 2006 and 2013 in the Netherlands were used. Individuals aged 50+ (n = 25,214) were categorized according to their health status (healthy, single chronic morbidity, multiple chronic morbidity), relationship status (partnered, non-partnered), and living arrangement (living with someone, living alone). Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to study the main- and the interaction-effects on mental health and role functioning as assessed with the RAND-36.
RESULTS: Irrespective of having chronic morbidity, having a partner was associated with better mental health when partners shared a home. Individuals with single and especially multiple chronic morbidity had impaired role functioning. Having a partner mitigated the adverse effects of multimorbidity on role functioning, but only in individuals who shared a home with their partner. Non-partnered individuals with multimorbidity and those not sharing a home with their partner demonstrated impaired role functioning.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that multimorbidity negatively affects role functioning, but not the mental health, of middle-aged and older individuals. Sharing a home with a partner can mitigate these adverse effects, while other combinations of relationship status and living arrangement do not. Offering intervention to those individuals most vulnerable to impaired functioning may relieve some of the increasing pressure on the health care system. An individual’s relationship status along with one’s living arrangement could foster the identification of a target group for such interventions attempting to sustain physical functioning or to adapt daily goals.

PMID: 28151967 [PubMed – in process]

Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Tagged | Leave a comment

More Questions than Answers: Continued Critical Reanalysis of Fredrickson et al.’s Studies of Genomics and Well-Being.






More Questions than Answers: Continued Critical Reanalysis of Fredrickson et al.’s Studies of Genomics and Well-Being.
PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0156415
Authors: Brown NJ, MacDonald DA, Samanta MP, Friedman HL, Coyne JC
Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Tagged | Leave a comment

A Reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale’s Total Score: Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism.






Related Articles

A Reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale’s Total Score: Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism.

PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0132940

Authors: López A, Sanderman R, Smink A, Zhang Y, van Sonderen E, Ranchor A, Schroevers MJ

Abstract
The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is currently the only self-report instrument to measure self-compassion. The SCS is widely used despite the limited evidence for the scale’s psychometric properties, with validation studies commonly performed in college students. The current study examined the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS in a large representative sample from the community. The study was conducted in 1,736 persons, of whom 1,643 were included in the analyses. Besides the SCS, data was collected on positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning, as well as on rumination and neuroticism. Analyses included confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), exploratory factor analyses (EFA), and correlations. CFA showed that the SCS’s proposed six-factor structure could not be replicated. EFA suggested a two-factor solution, formed by the positively and negatively formulated items respectively. Internal consistency was good for the two identified factors. The negative factor (i.e., sum score of the negatively formulated items) correlated moderately to strongly to negative affect, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, as well as to rumination and neuroticism. Compared to this negative factor, the positive factor (i.e., sum score of the positively formulated items) correlated weaker to these indicators, and relatively more strongly to positive affect. Results from this study do not justify the common use of the SCS total score as an overall indicator of self-compassion, and provide support for the idea, as also assumed by others, that it is important to make a distinction between self-compassion and self-criticism.

PMID: 26193654 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Tagged | Leave a comment

Pain Associated with Wound Care Treatment among Buruli Ulcer Patients from Ghana and Benin.






Related Articles
Pain Associated with Wound Care Treatment among Buruli Ulcer Patients from Ghana and Benin.
PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0119926
Authors: Alferink M, de Zeeuw J, Sopoh G, Agossadou C, Abass KM, Phillips RO… Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Leave a comment

Delay in Diagnosis of Testicular Cancer; A Need for Awareness Programs.






Related Articles

Delay in Diagnosis of Testicular Cancer; A Need for Awareness Programs.

PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0141244

Authors: Öztürk Ç, Fleer J, Hoekstra HJ, Hoekstra-Weebers JE

Abstract
BACKGROUND AIM: To gain insight into patient and doctor delay in testicular cancer (TC) and factors associated with delay.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty of the 66 eligible men; median age 26 (range 17-45) years, diagnosed with TC at the University Medical Center Groningen completed a questionnaire on patients’ delay: interval from symptom onset to first consultation with a general practitioner (GP) and doctors’ delay: interval between GP and specialist visit.
RESULTS: Median patient reported delay was 30 (range 1-365) days. Patient delay and TC tumor stage were associated (p = .01). Lower educated men and men embarrassed about their scrotal change reported longer patient delay (r = -.25, r = .79 respectively). Age, marital status, TC awareness, warning signals, nor perceived limitations were associated with patient delay. Median patient reported time from GP to specialist (doctors’ delay) was 7 (range 0-240) days. Referral time and disease stage were associated (p = .04). Six patients never reported a scrotal change. Of the 54 patients reporting a testicular change, 29 (54%) patients were initially ‘misdiagnosed’, leading to a median doctors’ delay of 14 (1-240) days, which was longer (p< .001) than in the 25 (46%) patients whose GP suspected TC (median doctors’ delay 1(0-7 days).
CONCLUSIONS: High variation in patients’ and doctors’ delay was found. Most important risk variables for longer patient delay were embarrassment and lower education. Most important risk variable in GP’s was ‘misdiagnosis’. TC awareness programs for men and physicians are required to decrease delay in the diagnosis of TC and improve disease free survival.

PMID: 26606249 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Tagged | Leave a comment

The Role of Patients’ Age on Their Preferences for Choosing Additional Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Patients with Diabetes.






Related Articles

The Role of Patients’ Age on Their Preferences for Choosing Additional Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Patients with Diabetes.

PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0139755

Authors: de Vries ST, de Vries FM, Dekker T, Haaijer-Ruskamp FM, de Zeeuw D, Ranchor AV, Denig P

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether patients’ willingness to add a blood pressure-lowering drug and the importance they attach to specific treatment characteristics differ among age groups in patients with type 2 diabetes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients being prescribed at least an oral glucose-lowering and a blood pressure-lowering drug completed a questionnaire including a discrete choice experiment. This experiment contained choice sets with hypothetical blood pressure-lowering drugs and a no additional drug alternative, which differed in their characteristics (i.e. effects and intake moments). Differences in willingness to add a drug were compared between patients <75 years (non-aged) and ≥75 years (aged) using Pearson χ2-tests. Multinomial logit models were used to assess and compare the importance attached to the characteristics.
RESULTS: Of the 161 patients who completed the questionnaire, 151 (72%) could be included in the analyses (mean age 68 years; 42% female). Aged patients were less willing to add a drug than non-aged patients (67% versus 84% respectively; P = 0.017). In both age groups, the effect on blood pressure was most important for choosing a drug, followed by the risk of adverse drug events and the risk of death. The effect on limitations due to stroke was only significant in the non-aged group. The effect on blood pressure was slightly more important in the non-aged than the aged group (P = 0.043).
CONCLUSIONS: Aged patients appear less willing to add a preventive drug than non-aged patients. The importance attached to various treatment characteristics does not seem to differ much among age groups.

PMID: 26445349 [PubMed – in process]

Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Leave a comment

The Impact of Goal Disturbance after Cancer on Cortisol Levels over Time and the Moderating Role of COMT.






Related Articles
The Impact of Goal Disturbance after Cancer on Cortisol Levels over Time and the Moderating Role of COMT.
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135708
Authors: Janse M, Faassen MV, Kema I, Smink A, Ranchor AV, Fleer… Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Leave a comment

Personal Networks and Mortality Risk in Older Adults: A Twenty-Year Longitudinal Study.






Personal Networks and Mortality Risk in Older Adults: A Twenty-Year Longitudinal Study.
PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0116731
Authors: Ellwardt L, van Tilburg T, Aartsen M, Wittek R, Steverink N
Abstract
BAC… Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Tagged | Leave a comment

Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain.






Related Articles
Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain.
PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e87445
Authors: de Boer MJ, Steinhagen HE, Versteegen GJ, Struys MM, Sanderman R
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:… Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Tagged | Leave a comment

The effects of a problem solving-based intervention on depressive symptoms and HIV medication adherence are independent.






Related Articles

The effects of a problem solving-based intervention on depressive symptoms and HIV medication adherence are independent.

PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e84952

Authors: Gross R, Bellamy SL, Chapman J, Han X, O’Duor J, Strom BL, Houts PS, Palmer SC, Coyne JC

Abstract
Depression and depressive symptoms predict poor adherence to medical therapy, but the association is complex, nonspecific, and difficult to interpret. Understanding this association may help to identify the mechanism explaining the results of interventions that improve both medical therapy adherence and depressive symptoms as well as determine the importance of targeting depression in adherence interventions. We previously demonstrated that Managed Problem Solving (MAPS) focused on HIV medication adherence improved adherence and viral load in patients initiating a new antiretroviral regimen. Here, we assessed whether MAPS improved depressive symptoms and in turn, whether changes in depressive symptoms mediated changes in adherence and treatment outcomes. We compared MAPS to usual care with respect to presence of depressive symptoms during the trial using logistic regression. We then assessed whether MAPS’ effect on depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between MAPS and adherence and virologic outcomes using linear and logistic regression, respectively. Mediation was defined by the disappearance of the mathematical association between MAPS and the outcomes when the proposed mediator was included in regression models. Although MAPS participants had a lower rate of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.93), there was no evidence of mediation of the effects of MAPS on adherence and virological outcome by improvements in depression. Thus, interventions for medication adherence may not need to address depressive symptoms in order to impact both adherence and depression; this remains to be confirmed, however, in other data.

PMID: 24400124 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Continue reading

Posted in PLoS One | Tagged | Leave a comment