More Questions than Answers: Continued Critical Reanalysis of Fredrickson et al.’s Studies of Genomics and Well-Being.

More Questions than Answers: Continued Critical Reanalysis of Fredrickson et al.’s Studies of Genomics and Well-Being.

PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0156415

Authors: Brown NJ, MacDonald DA, Samanta MP, Friedman HL, Coyne JC

Abstract
We critically re-examine Fredrickson et al.’s renewed claims concerning the differential relationship between hedonic and eudaimonic forms of well-being and gene expression, namely that people who experience a preponderance of eudaimonic well-being have gene expression profiles that are associated with more favorable health outcomes. By means of an extensive reanalysis of their data, we identify several discrepancies between what these authors claimed and what their data support; we further show that their different analysis models produce mutually contradictory results. We then show how Fredrickson et al.’s most recent article on this topic not only fails to adequately address our previously published concerns about their earlier related work, but also introduces significant further problems, including inconsistency in their hypotheses. Additionally, we demonstrate that regardless of which statistical model is used to analyze their data, Fredrickson et al.’s method can be highly sensitive to the inclusion (or exclusion) of data from a single subject. We reiterate our previous conclusions, namely that there is no evidence that Fredrickson et al. have established a reliable empirical distinction between their two delineated forms of well-being, nor that eudaimonic well-being provides any overall health benefits over hedonic well-being.

PMID: 27270924 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Posted in PLoS One | Tagged | Leave a comment

Survey nonresponse among informal caregivers: effects on the presence and magnitude of associations with caregiver burden and satisfaction.

Survey nonresponse among informal caregivers: effects on the presence and magnitude of associations with caregiver burden and satisfaction.

BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):480

Authors: Oldenkamp M, Wittek RP, Hagedoorn M, Stolk RP, Smidt N

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Informal caregiving is becoming more relevant with current trends such as population ageing. However, little is known about nonconsent and nonresponse bias in caregiving research. We investigated nonconsent and nonresponse bias in a sample of informal caregivers who participated in the LifeLines Cohort Study, and were invited for participation in an additional caregiving study.
METHODS: We compared socio-demographic characteristics, caregiver health, caregiving situation, and caregiver outcomes of nonconsent and consent caregivers, and nonresponse and response caregivers, on LifeLines data, by using Chi-square tests, Independent Sample T-tests, and Mann-Whitney tests. Furthermore, we examined the influence of nonconsent and nonresponse on the presence and magnitude of the associations between caregiver characteristics and two commonly used caregiving outcomes (caregiver burden and satisfaction). We conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses, including interaction terms with nonconsent and nonresponse.
RESULTS: Within a subcohort of 8443 caregivers, aged >18 years, 5095 caregivers (60 %) gave consent for participation in the caregiving study. Within the subgroup of 2002 caregivers who received the questionnaire, 965 (48 %) responded. Caregivers who were highly involved in caregiving (i.e. high time investment, high caregiver burden), gave more commonly consent to participate, and responded more often to the questionnaire. Nonconsent and nonresponse influenced the associations between caregiver characteristics and caregiver burden for only a few characteristics, mainly indicating the level of caregiving involvement (e.g. time investment, caregiving duration). Especially for caregiver burden, these indicators were stronger for consent and response caregivers than for nonconsent and nonresponse caregivers.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are important for caregiving research, as they emphasized that participation might not be evenly distributed among caregivers, and that the possibility of nonconsent and nonresponse bias should be considered.

PMID: 27278386 [PubMed – in process]

Posted in BMC Public Health | Tagged | Leave a comment

Replication initiatives will not salvage the trustworthiness of psychology.

Related Articles

Replication initiatives will not salvage the trustworthiness of psychology.

BMC Psychol. 2016;4(1):28

Authors: Coyne JC

Abstract
Replication initiatives in psychology continue to gather considerable attention from far outside the field, as well as controversy from within. Some accomplishments of these initiatives are noted, but this article focuses on why they do not provide a general solution for what ails psychology. There are inherent limitations to mass replications ever being conducted in many areas of psychology, both in terms of their practicality and their prospects for improving the science. Unnecessary compromises were built into the ground rules for design and publication of the Open Science Collaboration: Psychology that undermine its effectiveness. Some ground rules could actually be flipped into guidance for how not to conduct replications. Greater adherence to best publication practices, transparency in the design and publishing of research, strengthening of independent post-publication peer review and firmer enforcement of rules about data sharing and declarations of conflict of interest would make many replications unnecessary. Yet, it has been difficult to move beyond simple endorsement of these measures to consistent implementation. Given the strong institutional support for questionable publication practices, progress will depend on effective individual and collective use of social media to expose lapses and demand reform. Some recent incidents highlight the necessity of this.

PMID: 27245324 [PubMed – in process]

Posted in BMC Psychol | Tagged | Leave a comment

Impaired Mood in Headache Clinic Patients: Associations With the Perceived Hindrance and Attainability of Personal Goals.

Related Articles

Impaired Mood in Headache Clinic Patients: Associations With the Perceived Hindrance and Attainability of Personal Goals.

Headache. 2016 May 20;

Authors: Ciere Y, Visser A, Lebbink J, Sanderman R, Fleer J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Headache disorders are often accompanied by impaired mood, especially in the headache clinic population. There is a large body of literature demonstrating that an illness or disability may affect the way in which patients perceive their personal goals and that the perception that the attainability of goals is hindered by the illness is a risk factor for impaired mood. However, empirical evidence regarding the extent to which goals are hindered or less attainable as a result of a headache disorder, and how that is related to mood, is currently lacking.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine associations between headache severity, goal hindrance and attainability, and mood in a headache clinic population.
METHODS: The sample consisted of 65 adult patients seeking treatment at a tertiary headache clinic. Prior to their first appointment in the clinic, patients completed self-report measures of headache severity, goals and mood (PANAS).
RESULTS: Higher self-reported headache intensity was associated with higher goal hindrance (r = .38, P = .004), whereas greater headache frequency was associated with lower goal attainability (r = .30, P = .022). Higher perceived goal hindrance was associated with lower positive mood (r = -.27, P = .032) and higher negative mood (r = .28, P = .027). Furthermore, lower perceived goal attainability was associated with higher negative mood (r = -.34, P = .007). Goal perceptions explained an additional 11.4% of the variance in positive mood (F = 3.250, P = .047 <.05) and 10.5% of the variance in negative mood (F = 3.459, P = .039) beyond the effect of age and headache severity.
CONCLUSION: The results of this preliminary study suggest that perceptions of increased goal hindrance and decreased goal attainability may indeed be a risk factor for impaired mood in the headache clinic population and highlight the need for further, longitudinal research. Obtaining more insight into goal processes (eg, what types of goals are specifically disturbed, which goal adjustment strategies are (mal)adaptive) may help to identify ways to improve outcomes in the headache clinic population.

PMID: 27197699 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Posted in Headache | Tagged | Leave a comment

Interventions based on self-management of well-being theory: pooling data to demonstrate mediation and ceiling effects, and to compare formats.

Interventions based on self-management of well-being theory: pooling data to demonstrate mediation and ceiling effects, and to compare formats.

Aging Ment Health. 2016 May 12;:1-7

Authors: Goedendorp MM, Steverink N

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Interventions based on self-management of well-being (SMW) theory have shown positive effects, but additional questions remain: (1) Are improvements in well-being, as induced by the interventions, mediated by improved self-management ability (SMA)? (2) Do the interventions show ceiling effects? (3) Is a particular format of SMW intervention (individual, group, or self-help) more effective?
METHOD: Data of three randomized controlled trials were pooled. The greater part of the sample (N = 445) consisted of single older females. A bootstrap analysis was performed to test for mediation. Regression analyses with interaction effects were performed to test for ceiling effects. Controlled and transformed effect sizes (proportion of maximum change) were calculated to compare formats.
RESULTS: There was a full significant mediation of well-being by SMA. A significant interaction (ceiling) effect was found on well-being, but not on SMA. The controlled effect sizes of the raw scores were small to medium (.04-.49), and were small to large after transformation (.41-.73). None of the intervention formats was more effective.
CONCLUSION: Support for SMW theory was found, i.e. increasing self-management ability lead to improved well-being. Some ceiling effect was found. We conclude that various SMW interventions formats can improve self-management abilities and well-being with medium effects.

PMID: 27171347 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Posted in Aging Ment Health | Tagged | Leave a comment

Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases.

Related Articles

Population-based preconception carrier screening: how potential users from the general population view a test for 50 serious diseases.

Eur J Hum Genet. 2016 May 11;

Authors: Plantinga M, Birnie E, Abbott KM, Sinke RJ, Lucassen AM, Schuurmans J, Kaplan S, Verkerk MA, Ranchor AV, van Langen IM

Abstract
With the increased international focus on personalized health care and preventive medicine, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially expanded the options for carrier screening of serious, recessively inherited diseases. NGS screening tests not only offer reproductive options not previously available to couples, but they may also ultimately reduce the number of children born with devastating disorders. To date, preconception carrier screening (PCS) has largely targeted single diseases such as cystic fibrosis, but NGS allows the testing of many genes or diseases simultaneously. We have developed an expanded NGS PCS test for couples; simultaneously it covers 50 very serious, early-onset, autosomal recessive diseases that are untreatable. This is the first, noncommercial, population-based, expanded PCS test to be offered prospectively to couples in a health-care setting in Europe. So far, little is known about how potential users view such a PCS test. We therefore performed an online survey in 2014 among 500 people from the target population in the Netherlands. We enquired about their intention to take an expanded PCS test if one was offered, and through which provider they would like to see it offered. One-third of the respondents said they would take such a test were it to be offered. The majority (44%) preferred the test to be offered via their general practitioner (GP) and 58% would be willing to pay for the test, with a median cost of [euro ]75. Our next step is to perform an implementation study in which this PCS test will be provided via selected GPs in the Northern Netherlands.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 May 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.43.

PMID: 27165008 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Posted in Eur J Hum Genet | Leave a comment

Malnutrition is associated with worse health-related quality of life in children with cancer.

Related Articles

Malnutrition is associated with worse health-related quality of life in children with cancer.

Support Care Cancer. 2015 Oct;23(10):3043-52

Authors: Brinksma A, Sanderman R, Roodbol PF, Sulkers E, Burgerhof JG, de Bont ES, Tissing WJ

Abstract
PURPOSE: Malnutrition in childhood cancer patients has been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, this association has never actually been tested. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between nutritional status and HRQOL in children with cancer.
METHODS: In 104 children, aged 2-18 years and diagnosed with hematological, solid, or brain malignancies, nutritional status and HRQOL were assessed at diagnosis and at 3, 6, and 12 months using the child- and parent-report versions of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic scale and the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module. Scores on both scales range from 0 to 100.
RESULTS: Undernourished children (body mass index (BMI) or fat-free mass < -2 standard deviation score (SDS)) reported significantly lower PedsQL scores compared with well-nourished children on the domains physical functioning (-13.3), social functioning (-7.0), cancer summary scale (-5.9), and nausea (-14.7). Overnourished children (BMI or fat mass >2 SDS) reported lower scores on emotional (-8.0) and cognitive functioning (-9.2) and on the cancer summary scale (-6.6), whereas parent-report scores were lower on social functioning (-7.5). Weight loss (>0.5 SDS) was associated with lower scores on physical functioning (-13.9 child-report and -10.7 parent-report), emotional (-7.4) and social functioning (-6.0) (child-report), pain (-11.6), and nausea (-7.8) (parent-report). Parents reported worse social functioning and more pain in children with weight gain (>0.5 SDS) compared with children with stable weight status.
CONCLUSIONS: Undernutrition and weight loss were associated with worse physical and social functioning, whereas overnutrition and weight gain affected the emotional and social domains of HRQL. Interventions that improve nutritional status may contribute to enhanced health outcomes in children with cancer.

PMID: 25752883 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Posted in Support Care Cancer | Tagged | Leave a comment

A group approach to genetic counselling of cardiomyopathy patients: satisfaction and psychological outcomes sufficient for further implementation.

Related Articles

A group approach to genetic counselling of cardiomyopathy patients: satisfaction and psychological outcomes sufficient for further implementation.

Eur J Hum Genet. 2015 Nov;23(11):1462-7

Authors: Otten E, Birnie E, Ranchor AV, van Tintelen JP, van Langen IM

Abstract
The introduction of next-generation sequencing in everyday clinical genetics practise is increasing the number of genetic disorders that can be confirmed at DNA-level, and consequently increases the possibilities for cascade screening. This leads to a greater need for genetic counselling, whereas the number of professionals available to provide this is limited. We therefore piloted group genetic counselling for symptomatic cardiomyopathy patients at regional hospitals, to assess whether this could be an acceptable alternative to individual counselling. We performed a cohort study with pre- and post-counselling patient measurements using questionnaires, supplemented with evaluations of the group counselling format by the professionals involved. Patients from eight regional hospitals in the northern part of the Netherlands were included. Questionnaires comprised patient characteristics, psychological measures (personal perceived control (PPC), state and trait anxiety inventory (STAI)), and satisfaction with counsellors, counselling content and design. In total, 82 patients (mean age 57.5 year) attended one of 13 group sessions. Median PPC and STAI scores showed significantly higher control and lower anxiety after the counselling. Patients reported they were satisfied with the counsellors, and almost 75% of patients were satisfied with the group counselling. Regional professionals were also, overall, satisfied with the group sessions. The genetics professionals were less satisfied, mainly because of their perceived large time investment and less-than-expected group interaction. Hence, a group approach to cardiogenetic counselling is feasible, accessible, and psychologically effective, and could be one possible approach to counselling the increasing patient numbers in cardiogenetics.

PMID: 25649380 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Posted in Eur J Hum Genet | Leave a comment

Caregiving demands and caregivers’ psychological outcomes: The mediating role of perceived injustice.

Related Articles

Caregiving demands and caregivers’ psychological outcomes: The mediating role of perceived injustice.

Clin Rehabil. 2016 Apr 28;

Authors: Mohammadi S, de Boer MJ, Sanderman R, Hagedoorn M

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that higher caregiving demands are related to higher perceived injustice. Furthermore, this study investigated the mediating role of perceived injustice in the link between caregiving demands and caregivers’ psychological well-being.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional design.
SETTING: The Pain Centre of the university medical centre.
SUBJECTS: Participants were 184 family caregivers of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.
MAIN MEASURES: Participants completed questionnaires that assessed caregiving demands (i.e. The Dutch Objective Burden Inventory), perceived injustice (i.e. The Injustice Experience Questionnaire), how much they considered different sources responsible for the injustice they experienced (i.e. A newly developed inventory), perceived burden (i.e. The Zarit Burden Interview), distress (i.e. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale), and anger (i.e. The Hostility subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised).
RESULTS: The findings showed that caregiving demands are significantly related to perceived injustice in family caregivers (r = .44; P < .001). Only a small group of family caregivers considered the patient or themselves responsible, but more than half of the caregivers considered healthcare providers at least somewhat responsible for the unjust situation. Finally, perceived injustice mediated the association between caregiving demands and burden (b = .11, CI: .04-.23) and distress (b = .05, CI: .006-.12), but not anger (b = .008, CI: -.01-.06).
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that perceived injustice plays an important role in the well-being of family caregivers and caregivers’ well-being may be improved by changing their perceptions about their caregiving tasks and their condition.

PMID: 27127200 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Posted in Clin Rehabil | Tagged | Leave a comment

A Reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale’s Total Score: Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism.

Related Articles

A Reconsideration of the Self-Compassion Scale’s Total Score: Self-Compassion versus Self-Criticism.

PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0132940

Authors: López A, Sanderman R, Smink A, Zhang Y, van Sonderen E, Ranchor A, Schroevers MJ

Abstract
The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is currently the only self-report instrument to measure self-compassion. The SCS is widely used despite the limited evidence for the scale’s psychometric properties, with validation studies commonly performed in college students. The current study examined the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS in a large representative sample from the community. The study was conducted in 1,736 persons, of whom 1,643 were included in the analyses. Besides the SCS, data was collected on positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning, as well as on rumination and neuroticism. Analyses included confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), exploratory factor analyses (EFA), and correlations. CFA showed that the SCS’s proposed six-factor structure could not be replicated. EFA suggested a two-factor solution, formed by the positively and negatively formulated items respectively. Internal consistency was good for the two identified factors. The negative factor (i.e., sum score of the negatively formulated items) correlated moderately to strongly to negative affect, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, as well as to rumination and neuroticism. Compared to this negative factor, the positive factor (i.e., sum score of the positively formulated items) correlated weaker to these indicators, and relatively more strongly to positive affect. Results from this study do not justify the common use of the SCS total score as an overall indicator of self-compassion, and provide support for the idea, as also assumed by others, that it is important to make a distinction between self-compassion and self-criticism.

PMID: 26193654 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Posted in PLoS One | Tagged | Leave a comment