Compassion for Others and Self-Compassion: Levels, Correlates, and Relationship with Psychological Well-being.
Mindfulness (N Y). 2018;9(1):325-331
Authors: López A, Sanderman R, Ranchor AV, Schroevers MJ
Compassion for others and self-compassion are assumed to be closely related concepts. Yet, as they have been mostly studied separately, little is known about their relationship and to what extent they differ or resemble each other with respect to their correlates. This cross-sectional study aimed to gain knowledge on their mean levels, interrelationship, and relationships to psychological well-being and demographic factors. A community sample of 328 adults completed a series of standardized self-report questionnaires to assess compassion for others, self-compassion, depressive symptoms, negative affect, and positive affect. Results showed that compassion for others and self-compassion were not significantly related. Self-compassion was more strongly related to negative and positive indicators of affect than compassion for others. Compassion for others was higher in women than in men, and in low educated individuals compared to higher educated individuals. In contrast, self-compassion was lower in low educated individuals. Future research can build up on these findings to enlarge the understanding of how compassion for others and self-compassion relate and differ from each other.
PMID: 29387268 [PubMed]
Functional health state description and valuation by people aged 65 and over: a pilot study.
BMC Geriatr. 2018 Jan 16;18(1):11
Authors: Botes R, Vermeulen KM, Ranchor AV, Buskens E
BACKGROUND: Assessing quality of life among the elderly is a complex and multifaceted issue. Elderly people might find valuing and describing their personal experience of quality of life (QoL) demanding and cumbersome. This study therefore sought to determine the feasibility of administering two questionnaires in two samples of elderly people.
METHODS: A preference-based instrument (EQ-5D + C) and a currently achieved functioning questionnaire (CAF) were utilized. Two pilot studies were performed. The first was performed in South Africa (n = 30), designed to test whether elderly respondents could complete and understand the two questionnaires and also to indicate which valuation method, visual analogue scale or time trade off they preferred. A second pilot study was performed in the Netherlands (n = 30), designed to investigate the use of both questionnaires in determining quality of life and health state valuations in a Dutch sample of elderly.
RESULTS: Seventy percent of the South African respondents indicated that they preferred the visual analogue scale (VAS) method, when compared to the time trade-off (TTO). In both the South African and the Dutch pilot studies, the respondents, with different dependency levels, were able to use both questionnaires to determine health state descriptions and valuations. When ranking the profiles from fewer to more problems, the EQ-5D + C exhibits a gradual downwards trend, with a maximum of 100 and minimum VAS value of 41. The CAF also exhibits a gradual downwards trend, with a maximum of 1.00 and minimum VAS value of 36.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that individuals from different parts of the world are able to complete, describe, and value the questionnaires. It is our recommendation that a comprehensive study should be done, which includes both the EQ-5D + C questionnaire and the CAF questionnaire, since the two questionnaires have proven to be feasible in providing information on quality of life and well-being of elderly people.
PMID: 29338685 [PubMed – in process]
One-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of sertraline and cognitive behavior group therapy in depressed primary care patients (MIND study).
J Affect Disord. 2018 Jan 02;230:15-21
Authors: Mergl R, Allgaier AK, Hautzinger M, Coyne JC, Hegerl U, Henkel V
BACKGROUND: The long-term course of symptoms in patients with mild-to-moderate depression is not well understood. A 12-month-follow-up analysis was performed on those participants from a randomized controlled 10-week trial (RCT, MIND-study), who had received either treatment with an antidepressant (sertraline) or a psychotherapeutic intervention (group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)).
METHODS: The longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation (LIFE) was applied to 77 patients with mild-to moderate depression. The primary outcome was the number of weeks in the one-year follow-up period spent completely recovered from all depressive symptoms. Functional outcome was measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Further outcomes were relapse and remission rates based on weekly psychiatric rating scales (PSR) and the number of weeks in the follow-up period during which patients had a depressive disorder or subthreshold symptoms of depression.
RESULTS: Patients with acute treatment (10 weeks) with SSRI and those with acute treatment with CBT (also 10 weeks) did not differ significantly concerning the number of weeks in the follow-up period in which they were completely recovered (primary outcome) (SSRI: 31.6 weeks (standard deviation (SD): 23.7), CBT: 27.8 weeks (SD: 24.3)). Sertraline was superior to CBT regarding GAF scores by trend (p = 0.06).
LIMITATIONS: The generalizability of the findings is limited by the moderate sample size and missing values (LIFE).
CONCLUSIONS: Sertraline and group CBT have similar anti-depressive effects in the long-term course of mild-to-moderate depression. Regarding long-term global functioning, sertraline seems to be slightly superior to CBT.
PMID: 29355727 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Open Wounds and Healed Scars: A Qualitative Study of Elderly Women’s Experiences With Breast Cancer.
Cancer Nurs. 2017 Dec 21;:
Authors: van Ee B, Smits C, Honkoop A, Kamper A, Slaets J, Hagedoorn M
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is more prevalent among women 60 years or older than among women younger than 60 years. However, we know much more about the breast cancer experiences of younger women than of older women. Such knowledge is important, for example, to guide treatment decisions or to provide psychosocial care.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of women with breast cancer 70 years or older.
METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 older patients with breast cancer in the Netherlands. We used open coding and affinity diagramming to evoke the themes reflecting the experiences of these women.
RESULTS: Four themes emerged from the data: living through and coping with breast cancer, information exchange and informed choice, support experiences, and impact on daily life. Getting breast cancer took some women by surprise. However, older women with breast cancer coped fairly well and were satisfied with the support they received, especially from oncology nurses. Disturbing treatment adverse effects and changes in appearance, comorbid diseases, lack of clear information, and/or an unsupportive environment complicated their living with breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Even though many older women with breast cancer handle their disease rather well, some women do encounter difficulties. Lack of support, comorbid diseases, and treatment adverse effects warrant extra attention.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Nurses’ close attention to women at risk and early intervention could help relieve individual suffering, while taking these womens’ strengths into account can enhance self-management.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work, provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
PMID: 29271780 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Identifying Patients with COPD in Need for Psychosocial Care Through Screening with the HSCL-25 and the CCQ Mental State.
COPD. 2017 Dec 11;:1-5
Authors: Maters GA, Pool G, Sanderman R, Wempe JB, Fleer J
High levels of psychological distress are documented in patients with COPD. This study investigates the extent to which patients with a high score on the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) or with a high score on the Mental State scale of the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) endorse a need for psychosocial care, and investigates several characteristics of patients with a need. Outpatients with COPD of the Department of Pulmonary Diseases of a University Medical Center were assessed with the HSCL-25, CCQ and a question on need for psychosocial care. For patients indicating a need, the percentage of patients with HSCL-25 ≥39 was compared with the percentage of patients with CCQ Mental State >2 and tested with a Chi-square. In total 323 patients participated; 57% of them were distressed according to the HSCL-25 (≥39) and 20% according to the CCQ Mental State (>2); 28% reported a need for psychosocial care. For patients reporting a need for psychosocial care a higher percentage was identified by the HSCL-25 than by the CCQ Mental State (χ2 = 9.41, p <. 002) and they were younger than patients without a need (t = 4.48, p <. 001). No differences existed for sex, FEV1, FEV1% predicted or medical comorbidities. The HSCL-25 identified more patients in need than the CCQ Mental State scale. However, not all patients with a need were identified. No relationship was found between need for psychosocial care and illness variables or comorbidities. Distress screening is questioned as the most effective way to identity patients with COPD in need for psychosocial care.
PMID: 29227733 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Posted in COPD
Tagged R. Sanderman
Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Social Vulnerability Index for Use in the Dutch Context.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Nov 14;14(11):
Authors: Bunt S, Steverink N, Andrew MK, Schans CPV, Hobbelen H
Being able to identify socially frail older adults is essential for designing interventions and policy and for the prediction of health outcomes, both on the level of individual older adults and of the population. The aim of the present study was to adapt the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) to the Dutch language and culture for those purposes. A systematic cross-cultural adaptation of the initial Social Vulnerability Index was performed following five steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, a Delphi procedure, and a test for face validity and feasibility. The main result of this study is a face-valid 32 item Dutch version of the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI-D) that is feasible in health care and social care settings. The SVI-D is a useful index to measure social frailty in Dutch-language countries and offers a broad, holistic quantification of older people’s social circumstances related to the risk of adverse health outcomes.
PMID: 29135914 [PubMed – in process]
Reducing discrepancies of personal goals in the context of cancer: A longitudinal study on the relation with well-being, psychological characteristics, and goal progress.
Br J Health Psychol. 2017 Sep 27;:
Authors: Pama MR, Janse M, Sprangers MAG, Fleer J, Ranchor AV
OBJECTIVES: To (1) examine whether reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability is an adaptive predictor of well-being, (2) investigate intrusion, awareness, optimism, and pessimism as determinants of reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability, and (3) explore how goal progress is involved in reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability during two major periods after a colorectal cancer diagnosis.
DESIGN: Prospective design.
METHODS: Newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients (n = 120) were interviewed three times: within a month, 7 months (treatment period), and 18 months (follow-up period) post-diagnosis. Data were analysed using multiple regressions.
RESULTS: Results showed that (1) reducing discrepancies enhances well-being, (2) optimism and pessimism are predictors of reducing discrepancies during the treatment period but not during the follow-up period, while intrusion and awareness do not predict reducing discrepancies in either period, and (3) goal progress is a predictor of reducing discrepancies during the follow-up period, but no evidence for a moderating or mediating role of goal progress in the relation between psychological characteristics and reducing discrepancies was found.
CONCLUSIONS: Reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability could benefit colorectal cancer patients’ well-being. Optimism, pessimism, and goal progress appear to influence cancer patients’ ability to reduce discrepancies. Providing assistance in improving goal progress to those who are less optimistic and highly pessimistic may be a suitable training for cancer patients to prevent deterioration in well-being. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? More discrepancy between goal importance and goal attainability is associated with lower levels of well-being. People are able to change evaluations of importance and attainability, but it is unknown whether this positively impacts well-being. Underlying causes of differences in the extent to which discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability are reduced are unknown. What does this study add? This is the first study to show that reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability is beneficial for well-being. This is the first study to show that optimism and pessimism are determinants of reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability. Goal progress might be an effective target for interventions that aim to facilitate one’s ability to reduce discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability.
PMID: 28960718 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Social frailty in older adults: a scoping review.
Eur J Ageing. 2017 Sep;14(3):323-334
Authors: Bunt S, Steverink N, Olthof J, van der Schans CP, Hobbelen JSM
Social frailty is a rather unexplored concept. In this paper, the concept of social frailty among older people is explored utilizing a scoping review. In the first stage, 42 studies related to social frailty of older people were compiled from scientific databases and analyzed. In the second stage, the findings of this literature were structured using the social needs concept of Social Production Function theory. As a result, it was concluded that social frailty can be defined as a continuum of being at risk of losing, or having lost, resources that are important for fulfilling one or more basic social needs during the life span. Moreover, the results of this scoping review indicate that not only the (threat of) absence of social resources to fulfill basic social needs should be a component of the concept of social frailty, but also the (threat of) absence of social behaviors and social activities, as well as (threat of) the absence of self-management abilities. This conception of social frailty provides opportunities for future research, and guidelines for practice and policy.
PMID: 28936141 [PubMed]
Do good self-managers have less physical and social resource deficits and more well-being in later life?
Eur J Ageing. 2008 Sep;5(3):181-190
Authors: Steverink N, Lindenberg S
Proactive self-management is likely to be part of resource maintenance and well-being in later life, but empirical evidence is scarce. Therefore, we investigated (a) whether self-management ability (SMA) is associated with lower resource deficits, and (b) whether it is related directly and indirectly to life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Regression and mediational analyses (N = 439, aged 65 years and older), showed that SMA related to resource deficits, and had direct associations with the three well-being indicators. Indirect associations-via lower resource deficits-were found for LS, whereas the association between SMA and PA was mostly a direct one, being mediated only to a small extent by physical resource deficits. The association between SMA and NA was mediated only by social resource deficits. It is concluded that better SMA seems to matter to resource maintenance and well-being, but future research needs to unravel the differential findings for physical and social resource deficits and for the separate well-being indicators.
PMID: 28798571 [PubMed]
Emodiversity: Robust predictor of outcomes or statistical artifact?
J Exp Psychol Gen. 2017 Sep;146(9):1372-1377
Authors: Brown NJL, Coyne JC
This article examines the concept of emodiversity, put forward by Quoidbach et al. (2014) as a novel source of information about “the health of the human emotional ecosystem” (p. 2057). Quoidbach et al. drew an analogy between emodiversity as a desirable property of a person’s emotional make-up and biological diversity as a desirable property of an ecosystem. They claimed that emodiversity was an independent predictor of better mental and physical health outcomes in two large-scale studies. Here, we show that Quoidbach et al.’s construct of emodiversity suffers from several theoretical and practical deficiencies, which make these authors’ use of Shannon’s (1948) entropy formula to measure emodiversity highly questionable. Our reanalysis of Quoidbach et al.’s two studies shows that the apparently substantial effects that these authors reported are likely due to a failure to conduct appropriate hierarchical regression in one case and to suppression effects in the other. It appears that Quoidbach et al.’s claims about emodiversity may reduce to little more than a set of computational and statistical artifacts. (PsycINFO Database Record
PMID: 28846007 [PubMed – in process]