The Temporal Order of Change in Daily Mindfulness and Affect During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction.

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The Temporal Order of Change in Daily Mindfulness and Affect During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction.

J Couns Psychol. 2015 Jan 26;

Authors: Snippe E, Nyklíček I, Schroevers MJ, Bos EH

Abstract

Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede or follow changes in negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) during a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) program. This study also examines interindividual differences in the association between mindfulness and affect and possible predictors of these differences. Mindfulness, NA, and PA were assessed on a daily basis in 83 individuals from the general population who participated in an MBSR program. Multilevel autoregressive models were used to investigate the temporal order of changes in mindfulness and affect. Day-to-day changes in mindfulness predicted subsequent day-to-day changes in both NA and PA, but reverse associations did not emerge. Thus, changes in mindfulness seem to precede rather than to follow changes in affect during MBSR. The magnitude of the effects differed substantially between individuals, showing that the strength of the relationship between mindfulness and affect is not the same for all participants. These between-subjects differences could not be explained by gender, age, level of education, average level of mindfulness home practice, or baseline levels of mindfulness and affect. Mindfulness home practice during the day did predict subsequent increases in mindfulness. The findings suggest that increasing mindfulness on a daily basis can be a beneficial means to improve daily psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID: 25621590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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The impact of age on changes in quality of life among breast cancer survivors treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy.

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The impact of age on changes in quality of life among breast cancer survivors treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy.

Br J Cancer. 2015 Jan 20;

Authors: Bantema-Joppe EJ, de Bock GH, Woltman-van Iersel M, Busz DM, Ranchor AV, Langendijk JA, Maduro JH, van den Heuvel ER

Abstract

Background:The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of young age on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by comparing HRQoL of younger and older breast cancer patients, corrected for confounding, and of young patients and a general Dutch population.Methods:The population consisted of breast cancer survivors (stage 0-III) after breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. Health-related quality of life was prospectively assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The association between age (⩽50; 51-70; ⩾70 years) and HRQoL over time was analysed with mixed modelling. The clinical relevance of differences between/within age groups was estimated with Cohen’s D and consensus-based guidelines. The HRQoL data from the young patient cohort were compared with Dutch reference data at 3 years after radiotherapy.Results:A total of 1420 patients completed 3200 questionnaires. Median follow-up was 34 (range 6-70) months. Median age was 59 (range 28-85) years. Compared with older subjects, young women reported worse HRQoL in the first year after radiotherapy, but clinical relevance was limited. Three years after radiotherapy, HRQoL values in the younger group were equal to those in the reference population. Pain and fatigue after radiotherapy improved, with medium clinical relevance.Conclusions:Three years after radiotherapy for breast cancer, young age was not a risk factor for decreased HRQoL.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 January 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.632 www.bjcancer.com.

PMID: 25602967 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Caregivers’ attentional bias to pain: does it affect caregiver accuracy in detecting patient pain behaviors?

Caregivers’ attentional bias to pain: does it affect caregiver accuracy in detecting patient pain behaviors?

Pain. 2015 Jan;156(1):123-130

Authors: Mohammadi S, Dehghani M, Khatibi A, Sanderman R, Hagedoorn M

Abstract

Attentional bias to pain among family caregivers of patients with pain may enhance the detection of pain behaviors in patients. However, both relatively high and low levels of attentional bias may increase disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. This study aims to provide further evidence for the presence of attentional bias to pain among family caregivers, to examine the association between caregivers’ attentional bias to pain and detecting pain behaviors, and test whether caregivers’ attentional bias to pain is curvilinearly related to patient and caregiver disagreement in reporting pain behaviors. The sample consisted of 96 caregivers, 94 patients with chronic pain, and 42 control participants. Caregivers and controls completed a dot-probe task assessing attention to painful and happy stimuli. Both patients and caregivers completed a checklist assessing patients’ pain behavior. Although caregivers did not respond faster to pain congruent than pain incongruent trials, caregiver responses were slower in pain incongruent trials compared with happy incongruent trials. Caregivers showed more bias toward pain faces than happy faces, whereas control participants showed more bias toward happy faces than pain faces. Importantly, caregivers’ attentional bias to pain was significantly positively associated with reporting pain behaviors in patients above and beyond pain severity. It is reassuring that attentional bias to pain was not related to disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. In other words, attentional bias does not seem to cause overestimation of pain signals.

PMID: 25599308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Maximising the efficiency of clinical screening programmes: balancing predictive genetic testing with a right not to know.

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Maximising the efficiency of clinical screening programmes: balancing predictive genetic testing with a right not to know.

Eur J Hum Genet. 2015 Jan 7;

Authors: Schuurman AG, van der Kolk DM, Verkerk MA, Birnie E, Ranchor AV, Plantinga M, van Langen IM

Abstract

We explored the dilemma between patients’ right not to know their genetic status and the efficient use of health-care resources in the form of clinical cancer screening programmes. Currently, in the Netherlands, 50% risk carriers of heritable cancer syndromes who choose not to know their genetic status have access to the same screening programmes as proven mutation carriers. This implies an inefficient use of health-care resources, because half of this group will not carry the familial mutation. At the moment, only a small number of patients are involved; however, the expanding possibilities for genetic risk profiling means this issue must be addressed because of potentially adverse societal and financial impact. The trade-off between patients’ right not to know their genetic status and efficient use of health-care resources was discussed in six focus groups with health-care professionals and patients from three Dutch university hospitals. Professionals prefer patients to undergo a predictive DNA test as a prerequisite for entering cancer screening programmes. Professionals prioritise treating sick patients or proven mutation carriers over screening untested individuals. Participation in cancer screening programmes without prior DNA testing is, however, supported by most professionals, as testing is usually delayed and relatively few patients are involved at present. Reducing the number of 50% risk carriers undergoing screening is expected to be achieved by: offering more psychosocial support, explaining the iatrogenic risks of cancer screening, increasing out-of-pocket costs, and offering a less stringent screening programme for 50% risk carriers.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 January 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.269.

PMID: 25564039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Feasibility and effectiveness of an Asthma/COPD service for primary care: a cross-sectional baseline description and longitudinal results.

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Feasibility and effectiveness of an Asthma/COPD service for primary care: a cross-sectional baseline description and longitudinal results.

NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2015;25:14101

Authors: Metting EI, Riemersma RA, Kocks JH, Piersma-Wichers MG, Sanderman R, van der Molen T

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In 2007, an Asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (AC) service was implemented in the North of the Netherlands to support General Practitioners (GPs) by providing advice from pulmonologists on a systematic basis.

AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this service on patient-related outcomes.

METHODS: We report baseline data on 11,401 patients and follow-up data from 2,556 patients. GPs can refer all patients with possible obstructive airway disease (OAD) to the service, which is conducted by the local laboratory. Patients are assessed in the laboratory using questionnaires and spirometry. Pulmonologists inspect the data through the internet and send the GP diagnosis and management advice.

RESULTS: A total of 11,401 patients were assessed by the service, covering almost 60% of all adult patients with projected asthma or COPD in the area. In all, 46% (n=5,268) of the patients were diagnosed with asthma, 18% (n=2,019) with COPD and 7% (n=788) with the overlap syndrome. A total of 740 (7%) patients were followed up after 3 months because the GP advised them to change medication. In this group, the proportion of unstable COPD patients (Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ)⩾1) decreased from 63% (n=92) at baseline to 49% (n=72). The proportion of patients with uncontrolled asthma (Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ)⩾1.5) decreased from 41% (n=204) to 23% (n=115). In all, 938 (8%) patients were followed up after 12 months. From these patients, the proportion of unstable COPD patients (CCQ⩾1) decreased from 47% (n=115) to 44% (n=107). The proportion of patients with uncontrolled asthma (ACQ⩾1.5) decreased from 16% (n=95) to 14% (n=85).

CONCLUSION: The AC service assessed a considerable proportion of patients with OAD in the area, improved patients’ outcomes, and is considered to be feasible and effective.

PMID: 25569634 [PubMed - in process]

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Cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes: design of a randomized controlled trial.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes: design of a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Psychol. 2013;1(1):17

Authors: Tovote KA, Fleer J, Snippe E, Bas IV, Links TP, Emmelkamp PM, Sanderman R, Schroevers MJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are a common problem in patients with diabetes, laying an additional burden on both the patients and the health care system. Patients suffering from these symptoms rarely receive adequate evidence-based psychological help as part of routine clinical care. Offering brief evidence-based treatments aimed at alleviating depressive symptoms could improve patients’ medical and psychological outcomes. However, well-designed trials focusing on the effectiveness of psychological treatments for depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes are scarce. The Mood Enhancement Therapy Intervention Study (METIS) tests the effectiveness of two treatment protocols in patients with diabetes. Individually administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) are compared with a waiting list control condition in terms of their effectiveness in reducing the severity of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, we explore several potential moderators and mediators of change underlying treatment effectiveness, as well as the role of common factors and treatment integrity.

METHODS/DESIGN: The METIS trial has a randomized controlled design with three arms, comparing CBT and MBCT with a waiting list control condition. Intervention groups receive treatment immediately; the waiting list control group receives treatment three months later. Both treatments are individually delivered in 8 sessions of 45 to 60 minutes by trained therapists. Primary outcome is severity of depressive symptoms. Anxiety, well-being, diabetes-related distress, HbA1c levels, and intersession changes in mood are assessed as secondary outcomes. Assessments are held at pre-treatment, several time points during treatment, at post-treatment, and at 3-months and 9-months follow-up. The study has been approved by a medical ethical committee.

DISCUSSION: Both CBT and MBCT are expected to help improve depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes. If MBCT is at least equally effective as CBT, MBCT can be established as an alternative approach to CBT for treating depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes. By analyzing moderators and mediators of change, more information can be gathered for whom and why CBT and MBCT are effective.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT01630512.

PMID: 25566369 [PubMed]

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Prevalence of psychological problems and associated transplant-related variables at different time periods after liver transplantation.

Prevalence of psychological problems and associated transplant-related variables at different time periods after liver transplantation.

Liver Transpl. 2014 Dec 30;

Authors: Annema C, Roodbol PF, Stewart RE, Porte RJ, Ranchor AV

Abstract

After liver transplantation, recipients often experience psychological problems that are influenced by demographic, personal and transplant-related variables. However, because previous studies have mostly reported on psychological problems and their influencing factors in the first years after transplantation, less is known about their prevalence and influence in the long run. The aim of this study was to examine point-prevalence rates of symptoms of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress at different time periods after transplantation, as well as transplant-related variables associated with these problems. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 373 liver transplant recipients transplanted between 1979 and 2009 at our center. Five clinically relevant time periods were identified: 0.5-<2 years, 2-<5 years, 5-<10 years, 10-<15 years, and ≥15 years after transplantation. The response rate was 75% (n=281). Overall, 33.4% of the respondents experienced clinically relevant symptom levels of anxiety (28.7%), depression (16.5%), or posttraumatic stress (10.0%). Symptoms of anxiety and depression were more prevalent in the first two years and at long-term after transplantation. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were more prevalent in the first five years after transplantation. However, the prevalence rates did not differ significantly between time periods. Viral hepatitis and the number of side-effects of the immunosuppressive medication were found to be associated with all psychological problems. Alcoholic liver disease was associated with anxiety and depression at short-term after transplantation. In conclusion, a significant subset of transplant recipients experience psychological problems, both shortly after transplantation and in the long run. These problems are often associated with side-effects of the immunosuppressive medication. Therefore monitoring of psychological problems, offering psychological counseling and managing medication side-effects should be part of the routine care of transplant recipients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25556775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Role of patient treatment beliefs and provider characteristics in establishing patient-provider relationships.

Role of patient treatment beliefs and provider characteristics in establishing patient-provider relationships.

Fam Pract. 2015 Jan 1;

Authors: Lee King PA, Cederbaum JA, Kurzban S, Norton T, Palmer SC, Coyne JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Positive patient-provider relationships have been associated with improved depression treatment outcomes. Little is known about how patient treatment beliefs influence patient-provider relationships, specifically treatment alliance and shared decision making in primary care (PC).

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the relationship between patient treatment beliefs and patient-provider relationships by gender, race and current depression.

METHODS: We used a deductive parallel convergent mixed method design with cross-sectional data. Participants were 227 Black and White patients presenting with depression symptoms in PC settings. Individuals were randomized into either a quantitative survey (n = 198) or qualitative interview (n = 29) group. We used multiple ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between patient beliefs, as measured by the Treatment Beliefs Scale and the Medication Beliefs Scale, and treatment alliance or shared decision making. We concurrently conducted thematic analyses of qualitative semistructured interview data to explicate the nature of patient-provider relationships.

RESULTS: We found that patients who believed their provider would respectfully facilitate depression treatment reported greater bond, openness and shared decision making with their provider. We also identified qualitative themes of physicians listening to, caring about and respecting patients. Empathy and emotive expression increased patient trust in PC providers as facilitators of depression treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: This work systematically demonstrated what many providers anecdotally believe: PC environments in which individuals feel safe sharing psychological distress are essential to early identification and treatment of depression. Interprofessional skills-based training in attentiveness and active listening may influence the effectiveness of depression intervention.

PMID: 25556196 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Is there a duty to recontact in light of new genetic technologies? A systematic review of the literature.

Is there a duty to recontact in light of new genetic technologies? A systematic review of the literature.

Genet Med. 2014 Dec 11;

Authors: Otten E, Plantinga M, Birnie E, Verkerk MA, Lucassen AM, Ranchor AV, Van Langen IM

Abstract

Purpose:With rapid advances in genetic technologies, new genetic information becomes available much faster today than just a few years ago. This has raised questions about whether clinicians have a duty to recontact eligible patients when new genetic information becomes available and, if such duties exist, how they might be implemented in practice.Methods:We report the results of a systematic literature search on the ethical, legal, social (including psychological), and practical issues involved in recontacting former patients who received genetic services. We identified 1,428 articles, of which 61 are covered in this review.Results:The empirical evidence available indicates that most but not all patients value being recontacted. A minority of (older) articles conclude that recontacting should be a legal duty. Most authors consider recontacting to be ethically desirable but practically unfeasible. Various solutions to overcome these practical barriers have been proposed, involving efforts of laboratories, clinicians, and patients.Conclusion:To advance the discussion on implementing recontacting in clinical genetics, we suggest focusing on the question of in what situations recontacting might be regarded as good standard of care. To this end, reaching a professional consensus, obtaining more extensive empirical evidence, and developing professional guidelines are important.Genet Med advance online publication 11 December 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.173.

PMID: 25503495 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Is implementing screening for distress an efficient means to recruit patients to a psychological intervention trial?

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Is implementing screening for distress an efficient means to recruit patients to a psychological intervention trial?

Psychooncology. 2014 May;23(5):516-23

Authors: van Scheppingen C, Schroevers MJ, Pool G, Smink A, Mul VE, Coyne JC, Sanderman R

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Psychological interventions show greater efficacy when evaluated with distressed patients. We report on the feasibility of implementing screening for recruiting distressed cancer patients to a randomized controlled trial of problem-solving therapy (PST), characteristics associated with enrolment, and time investment and challenges of implementing screening.

METHODS: Three medical settings implemented screening of patients, directly after cancer treatment (T1) and 2 months later (T2), using Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and one question about need for services. Distressed patients indicating need for services were interviewed. Eligible patients were offered the possibility to participate in the trial. Consenting patients were randomized to PST or waitlist.

RESULTS: At T1, 366 of 970 screened patients (37%) scored above the cutoff and at T2, 208 of 689 screened patients (30%). At either or both T1 and T2, 423 patients reported distress, of whom 215 indicated need for services. Only 36 (4% of 970) patients consented to trial participation. Twenty-seven patients needed to be screened to recruit a single patient, with 17 h required for each patient recruited. Barriers to screening were time constraints and negative attitudes of oncology staff towards screening.

CONCLUSIONS: Implementing screening proved inefficient for recruiting distressed cancer patients post-treatment to a randomized controlled trial on PST, with need for services being much less than anticipated. Consecutively screening patients did not result in a sample representative of the larger pool of distressed patients, which may lower generalizability. An adequately powered intervention trial using screening requires a feasibility study establishing recruitment rates and dedicated, funded staff assistance.

PMID: 24829951 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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