A critical reanalysis of the relationship between genomics and well-being.

Related Articles

A critical reanalysis of the relationship between genomics and well-being.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 25;

Authors: Brown NJ, MacDonald DA, Samanta MP, Friedman HL, Coyne JC

Abstract

Fredrickson et al. [Fredrickson BL, et al. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(33):13684-13689] claimed to have observed significant differences in gene expression related to hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions of well-being. Having closely examined both their claims and their data, we draw substantially different conclusions. After identifying some important conceptual and methodological flaws in their argument, we report the results of a series of reanalyses of their dataset. We first applied a variety of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis techniques to their self-reported well-being data. A number of plausible factor solutions emerged, but none of these corresponded to Fredrickson et al.’s claimed hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions. We next examined the regression analyses that purportedly yielded distinct differential profiles of gene expression associated with the two well-being dimensions. Using the best-fitting two-factor solution that we identified, we obtained effects almost twice as large as those found by Fredrickson et al. using their questionable hedonic and eudaimonic factors. Next, we conducted regression analyses for all possible two-factor solutions of the psychometric data; we found that 69.2% of these gave statistically significant results for both factors, whereas only 0.25% would be expected to do so if the regression process was really able to identify independent differential gene expression effects. Finally, we replaced Fredrickson et al.’s psychometric data with random numbers and continued to find very large numbers of apparently statistically significant effects. We conclude that Fredrickson et al.’s widely publicized claims about the effects of different dimensions of well-being on health-related gene expression are merely artifacts of dubious analyses and erroneous methodology.

PMID: 25157145 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Posted in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A | Tagged | Leave a comment

Depression screening and patient outcomes in pregnancy or postpartum: a systematic review.

Related Articles

Depression screening and patient outcomes in pregnancy or postpartum: a systematic review.

J Psychosom Res. 2014 Jun;76(6):433-46

Authors: Thombs BD, Arthurs E, Coronado-Montoya S, Roseman M, Delisle VC, Leavens A, Levis B, Azoulay L, Smith C, Ciofani L, Coyne JC, Feeley N, Gilbody S, Schinazi J, Stewart DE, Zelkowitz P

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Clinical practice guidelines disagree on whether health care professionals should screen women for depression during pregnancy or postpartum. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether depression screening improves depression outcomes among women during pregnancy or the postpartum period.

METHODS: Searches included the CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases through April 1, 2013; manual journal searches; reference list reviews; citation tracking of included articles; and trial registry reviews. RCTs in any language that compared depression outcomes between women during pregnancy or postpartum randomized to undergo depression screening versus women not screened were eligible.

RESULTS: There were 9,242 unique titles/abstracts and 15 full-text articles reviewed. Only 1 RCT of screening postpartum was included, but none during pregnancy. The eligible postpartum study evaluated screening in mothers in Hong Kong with 2-month-old babies (N=462) and reported a standardized mean difference for symptoms of depression at 6 months postpartum of 0.34 (95% confidence interval=0.15 to 0.52, P<0.001). Standardized mean difference per 44 additional women treated in the intervention trial arm compared to the non-screening arm was approximately 1.8. Risk of bias was high, however, because the status of outcome measures was changed post-hoc and because the reported effect size per woman treated was 6-7 times the effect sizes reported in comparable depression care interventions.

CONCLUSION: There is currently no evidence from any well-designed and conducted RCT that screening for depression would benefit women in pregnancy or postpartum. Existing guidelines that recommend depression screening during pregnancy or postpartum should be re-considered.

PMID: 24840137 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Posted in J Psychosom Res | Tagged | Leave a comment

Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women with breast cancer.

Related Articles

Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women with breast cancer.

J Psychosom Res. 2014 Jun;76(6):485-6

Authors: Kwakkenbos L, Coyne JC, Thombs BD

PMID: 24840144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Posted in J Psychosom Res | Tagged | Leave a comment

Are Patient and Relationship Variables Associated With Participation of Intimate Partners in Couples Research?

Related Articles

Are Patient and Relationship Variables Associated With Participation of Intimate Partners in Couples Research?

Health Psychol. 2014 Aug 18;

Authors: Hagedoorn M, Hein FL, Schulz T, Homan van der Heide JJ, Niesing J, Westerhuis R, Ploeg RJ, Ranchor AV

Abstract

Background: Recruitment of participants for studies focusing on couples facing illness is a challenging task and participation decline may be associated with nonrandom factors creating bias. This study examines whether patient and relationship characteristics are associated with partner participation in research. Method: Patients invited to participate in a cross-sectional study on adaptation and quality of life after renal transplantation were asked to forward information about an add-on study to their partners. Results: A total of 456 participating patients had a partner; 293 of the partners showed interest in the study and 206 actually completed the questionnaire. Backward logistic regression analyses revealed that demographic, illness, and personal characteristics of the patient were not associated with partner interest in the study nor actual partner participation. However, partners who indicated interest in the study showed more active engagement toward the patients (as reported by the patients). Furthermore, patients of partners who actually completed the questionnaire reported less negative affect and higher relationship satisfaction than patients whose partner did not participate in the study. Discussion: It is encouraging that of the large number of variables tested, only 2 were associated with the participation of partners. Nevertheless, well-functioning couples appear to be overrepresented in our study, calling for specific effort to include marital distressed couples in research focusing on dyadic adaptation to illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID: 25133832 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Posted in Health Psychol | Leave a comment

Cognitive therapy for patients with schizophrenia.

Related Articles

Cognitive therapy for patients with schizophrenia.

Lancet. 2014 Aug 2;384(9941):400

Authors: Coyne JC, van Linschoten HS

PMID: 25088854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Posted in Lancet | Tagged | Leave a comment

Exploring the response shift phenomenon in childhood patients with cancer and its effect on health-related quality of life.

Related Articles

Exploring the response shift phenomenon in childhood patients with cancer and its effect on health-related quality of life.

Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014 Jan 1;41(1):48-56

Authors: Brinksma A, Tissing WJ, Sulkers E, Kamps WA, Roodbol PF, Sanderman R

Abstract

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the response shift phenomenon in pediatric patients with cancer and to determine its effects on ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

DESIGN: Retrospective pre- and post-test design.

SETTING: Pediatric oncology department in the northern part of the Netherlands.

SAMPLE: 37 children newly diagnosed with cancer and 80 parents.

METHODS: The then-test method was used to determine response shift. HRQOL was assessed within two weeks postdiagnosis (pretest) and three months later (post-test) using both child and parent reports of PedsQL and Cantril’s ladder. The post-test and then-test were administered concurrently.

MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Overall and multidimensional HRQOL.

FINDINGS: Scores on Cantril’s then-test were lower than the pretest in both child and parent reports, indicating response shift in the assessment of overall HRQOL. Children experienced a greater response shift than parents. No differences were found between the PedsQL then- and pretests.

CONCLUSIONS: Both child- and parent-report ratings of overall HRQOL were affected by response shift, resulting in an underestimation of the improvement in overall HRQOL between diagnosis and three months postdiagnosis. No response shift was demonstrated in the more specific domains of HRQOL (PedsQL).

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Knowledge of the response shift phenomenon helps nurses to better interpret the outcomes of HRQOL. The use of the PedsQL instrument is recommended in future studies that aim to demonstrate changes in HRQOL.

PMID: 24195842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Posted in Oncol Nurs Forum | Tagged | Leave a comment

Providing care to a child with cancer: a longitudinal study on the course, predictors, and impact of caregiving stress during the first year after diagnosis.

Related Articles

Providing care to a child with cancer: a longitudinal study on the course, predictors, and impact of caregiving stress during the first year after diagnosis.

Psychooncology. 2014 Aug 12;

Authors: Sulkers E, Tissing WJ, Brinksma A, Roodbol PF, Kamps WA, Stewart RE, Sanderman R, Fleer J

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the course, predictors, and impact of caregiving stress on the functioning of primary caregivers of children with cancer during the first year after a child’s cancer diagnosis.

METHODS: Primary caregivers (N = 95, 100% mother, 86% response rate) of consecutive newly diagnosed paediatric cancer patients (0-18 years) completed measures of caregiving stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-reported health at diagnosis, and 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter.

RESULTS: Results indicated a significant decrease in caregiving stress (especially during the first 3 months after diagnosis). Caregiving stress was predicted by single marital status and the ill child being the mother’s only child. Multilevel analyses, controlled for socio-demographic and medical covariates, showed that, over time, the decline in caregiving stress was accompanied by a reduction in depressive symptoms and anxiety. The amount of variance explained by caregiving stress was 53% for depressive symptoms, 47% for anxiety, and 3% for self-reported health.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that caregiving stress is an important factor in understanding parental adjustment to childhood cancer. This offers possibilities for developing interventions aimed at preventing caregiving stress, and strengthening mothers’ confidence in their ability to provide good care. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 25113320 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Posted in Psychooncology | Tagged | Leave a comment

Mutual Reinforcement Between Neuroticism and Life Experiences: A Five-Wave, 16-Year Study to Test Reciprocal Causation.

Related Articles

Mutual Reinforcement Between Neuroticism and Life Experiences: A Five-Wave, 16-Year Study to Test Reciprocal Causation.

J Pers Soc Psychol. 2014 Aug 11;

Authors: Jeronimus BF, Riese H, Sanderman R, Ormel J

Abstract

High neuroticism predicts psychopathology and physical health problems. Nongenetic factors, including major life events and experiences, explain approximately half of the variance in neuroticism. Conversely, neuroticism also predicts these life experiences. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reciprocal causation between neuroticism and life experiences and to gauge the magnitude and persistence of these associations. This longitudinal cohort study included 5 assessment waves over 16 years in a random sample of 296 Dutch participants (47% women) with a mean age of 34 years (SD = 12, range 16-63 years). Neuroticism was assessed with the Amsterdam Biographic Questionnaire. The experiences measured included positive and negative life events, long-term difficulties (LTDs), and change in life quality, all assessed by contextual rating procedures adapted from the Life Event and Difficulties Schedule. We fit structural equation models in Mplus. Results showed that neuroticism consistently predicted negative experiences, decreased life quality, and LTDs (β = 0.15 to 0.39), whereas effects on positive experiences were variable (β = 0.14). LTDs and deteriorated life quality each predicted small but persistent increases in neuroticism (β = 0.18), whereas improved life quality predicted small but persistent decreases (β = -0.13). This suggests set point change in neuroticism. Life event aggregates showed no persistent effects on the neuroticism set point. Neuroticism and life experiences showed persistent, bidirectional associations. Experience-driven changes in neuroticism lasted over a decade. Results support the corresponsive principle (reciprocal causation), suggesting a mixed model of change in neuroticism that distinguishes temporary changes in neuroticism from persistent changes in an individual’s neuroticism set point. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID: 25111305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Posted in J Pers Soc Psychol | Tagged | Leave a comment

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for seasonal affective disorder: A pilot study.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for seasonal affective disorder: A pilot study.

J Affect Disord. 2014 Jul 11;168C:205-209

Authors: Fleer J, Schroevers M, Panjer V, Geerts E, Meesters Y

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The best available treatment for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is light therapy. Yet, this treatment does not prevent recurrence of depression in subsequent seasons. The aim of the study is to gain preliminary insight in the efficacy of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in the prevention of SAD recurrence.

METHODS: This is a randomized controlled pilot study, in which SAD patients in remission were randomly allocated to an individual format of MBCT or a control condition (i.e. treatment as usual). MBCT was given between May and June 2011, when there was no presence of depressive symptoms. The Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (IDS-SR), which patients received on a weekly basis from September 2011 to April 2012, was used to assess moment of recurrence (≥20) and severity at moment of recurrence.

RESULTS: 23 SAD patients were randomized to MBCT and 23 to the control condition. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the groups did not differ in moment of recurrence (χ²(1).41, p=.52). T-tests showed no group difference in mean IDS-SR scores at moment of recurrence (t(31)=-.52, p=.61).

LIMITATIONS: The results are limited by small sample size (n=46) and missing data of weekly IDS-SR assessments.

CONCLUSION: The findings of this pilot RCT suggest that individual MBCT is not effective in preventing a SAD recurrence when offered in a symptom free period (i.e. spring).

PMID: 25063959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Posted in J Affect Disord | Tagged | Leave a comment

The Course of Sleep Problems in Patients With Heart Failure and Associations to Rehospitalizations.

The Course of Sleep Problems in Patients With Heart Failure and Associations to Rehospitalizations.

J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014 Jun 24;

Authors: Johansson P, Broström A, Sanderman R, Jaarsma T

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:: Sleep problems are common in patients with heart failure (HF) and might be associated with patient outcomes.

AIMS:: The aim of this study was to describe the course of sleep problems in HF patients over 1 year and the association between sleep problems and rehospitalization.

METHODS:: Data from 499 HF patients (mean age, 70 years) were used in this analysis. Sleep problems were assessed with the item “Was your sleep restless” from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale during hospitalization for HF (baseline) and after 1 year.

RESULTS:: A total of 43% of patients (n = 215) reported sleep problems at baseline, and 21% of patients (n = 105), after 1 year. Among the 215 patients with problems with sleep at baseline, 30% (n = 65) continued to have sleep problems over time. Among the 284 patients without sleep problems at baseline, 14% (n = 40) reported sleep problems after 1 year. After adjustments for potential cofounders, patients with continued sleep problems had an almost 2-fold increased risk for all-cause hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 2.1; P = .002) and cardiovascular hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 2.2; P = .004).

CONCLUSION:: One-third of HF patients with sleep problems at discharge experienced persistent sleep problems at follow-up. Continued sleep problems were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular rehospitalizations.

PMID: 24978159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Posted in J Cardiovasc Nurs | Tagged | Leave a comment